A History of the PMC
Chapter I - 'Beginnings' 1932-1939
On the 24th January 1934 Preston Mountaineering Club came into official existence with its first Annual General Meeting held at the CTC Clubroom, Lancaster Road in Preston with Mr J Higginson in the Chair. Abb Sutcliffe, Bill Hargreaves, Joss Woods, Syd Mercer and Harry Tunbridge along with approximately 20 others (who were not named) voted for the formal creation of the club. A President was nominated - Mr. W. Palmer, FRGS, who duly accepted and a committee was elected from those present whose first task would be to draw up the club rules. That first committee consisted of:
Chairman: Jack Higginson
Sec/Treasurer- Abb Sutcliffe
Hon. Auditor: Harry Chapman
Committee Members: Bill Hargreaves, Joss Woods, Harry Tunbridge & Syd Mercer
The Membership fee was set at 2/6d with an annual subscription of 2/6d (25p). The balance sheet showed:
4 members subs at 2/6d £3-0s-0d Loss on lecture 16s-0d
Profits on Mtg. Journals 6s-0d Loss on Dow trip £1-2s-6d
General postage, tel 12s-6d paper etc.
Balance in Hand 15s-0d
Totals £3-6s-0d £3-6s-0d
However, we really need to go back to or three years prior to the above event to see how the club actually came about.
The early 1930s must have been quite an idyllic time, with the awful memory of the 1914-18 Great War, supposedly the 'war to end all wars', starting to fade into memory. And the spectre of the repeat exercise and the Hitler era were yet to be confronted. The depression of 1926 and the General Strike had been put behind the country and an air of optimism must have prevailed.
While the mountains of Great Britain had been explored by the early pioneers of the previous century and the early 1900s, there was still an abundance of opportunities for the avid mountaineer. However, today's convenience of hopping in the car for a quick spin up to the Lakes and even going to Scotland for the weekend would have been the preserve of few ordinary folk. Those club members with their own transport must have been very popular!
Bill Hargeaves, who I interviewed in 1998, described how he and others would meet up for lunch on a Saturday afternoon (remember that many people still worked on Saturday mornings at this time) and then cycle up to the Lakes, stopping off for sandwiches at Mrs Barraclough's at Damson Dene(now a rather swish hotel) in the Lyth Valley before continuing on to Coniston arriving in the evening. They then grabbed a day's climbing on Dow Crag before cycling back home on Sunday evening! I wonder how many of us would be prepared to live with that regime today?
Leo Conway left some written notes tell that early story and I have used them verbatim:
"The first group we are concerned with is the members of the camping section of Preston CTC, who were active most week-ends in the Lakes, Yorkshire and Bowland, occasionally 'pot-holing' or 'caving’ and going further afield on the longer holidays. The leading figures were Bill Hargeaves, Harry Tunbridge, Syd Mercer, Charlie Breakell, Harry Chapman, with Arthur Corner from Blackpool, Jim Morgan and Harry Bramley. The first six had been fully tested, when, on Whit Sunday 1932, on Bowfell Links, a rock fell on Harry Tunbridge's thigh and his leg appeared broken. This was before the days of the Mountain Rescue Teams and so they carefully carried him down The Band on rope slings. Assistance arrived later apparently in the form of a ladder and some men. The accident happened at 2.15 pm and they got down to Stool End at 7.00 pm. A doctor met them and Harry was taken to Kendal Hospital for about five days. The leg was not broken, but badly bruised.
A second group, from Preston Ramblers, the Holiday Fellowship. or CHA with A.B.B. Sutcliffe, Jerry Eastham, Doug Robinson and perhaps Josh Woods and Charlie Robson had been active on the hills for some time and they were to make contact with Dick Cook who had, for several years, been climbing with the professional guide, J.E.B. Wright. A.B.B. was an excellent natural climber as the photograph by Tom Stephenson of him climbing Kern Knotts Crack clearly shows. Doug Robinson was to introduce Jack Ratcliffe to climbing and during the war was sent with his unit to Skye for rock-climbing training under one Jack Ratcliffe!
The first promotional discussion was at a camp site at Skelwith Force one Easter, when the weather was bad and when Abb, Jerry and Doug rolled up from somewhere in Langdale and talked about the formation of a club. At the same time, Jim Morgan and Harry Bramley, who were staying at Wall End, met us and that tied into it the Blackburn contingent (W.B,H.),.... This was Easter 1931. Things developed slowly, but at New Year 1933, Hargreaves, Tunbridge, Mercer and Chapman, with Sutcliffe and Eastham were the only visitors at Mines House, Coniston Youth Hostel, obviously by arrangement. They climbed on Dow Crag in poor weather, heard Big Ben announce 1933 on their host's home-made radio and were regaled with rhubarb wine, ginger wine, cider and cake. However, there must then have followed some informal meetings and Abb Sutcliffe, now as nominal secretary, became the channel for all arrangement"
(* Ed's note: Bill Hargeaves told me that he felt that Abb Sutcliffe never really received the acknowledgement for all the background organisation which enabled the club to function properly. I trust that we can now set that record straight.)
"On Sunday, 21st May a coach was arranged for Langdale (my diary says Middle fell with Arthur Corner and over to Pavey, Crescent and Gwynnes with Charlie Breakell).
The next coach was 2nd July to Torver, for Dow. Chapman pointed out a yellow jersey on the crag as being on the secretary of our newly formed Mountaineering Club. Hargeaves was on Intermediate, Sutcliffe on Murrays.
Sept. 17th coach again to Langdale. On Gimmer, Bill, self, Syd on one rope. Jones and Eastham on another. Did 'B' down Easy Gully, Oliverson’s and Lyons Crawl, down to Amen Corner, Thompsons Ledge to 40ft Corner, then Bill decided it was too windy to carry on with 'A'. Morgan and Bramley on Neckband (Bowfell).
Sunday 5th November to Coniston in cars. Fireworks in Easter Gully, reprehensible, but good value for money as every bang bounced back four or five times. Sutcliffe and Eastham did Murrays (B). Other climbing was being done by all parties, in addition to these four official PMC Meets, at least a further half dozen trips to Langdale and Coniston during the year.
Greater mountaineering of the year. Smythe's lecture on Kamet. He and Shipton on Everest 1933. Tilman started his ride on a second hand bike, from Kenya across Africa to join up with Shipton for first Nanda Devi Expedition (PMC cyclists please note)."
The first Committee then had to set about the difficult task of drawing up the Club Rules.
The First AGM had, for reasons not explained, barred ladies from the club, except on Invitation Meets (*Ed - Gee, thanks guys!). However, sense prevailed (or was it pressure from the lady members?) and this was overturned at the first revision of the fledgling rules. It took two or three attempts to get the Rules into an acceptable form and subsequently passed by 16 members at an Extraordinary General Meeting on 30th August 1934 held in the Thomas Cook Office, Miller Arcade, Preston. However, the printing of the rule book was put into abeyance!
The first official PMC Meets Programme for 1934 was as follows:
28 Jan Doe Crag
25 Feb Langdale (I)
18 Mar Derbyshire
22 Apr Doe Crag (I)
6 May Gt Gable
10 Jun Laddow
15 Jul Gt Gable (I)
29 Jul Langdale
2 Sep Doe Crag (I)
30 Sep Gt Gable
28 Oct Langdale (I)
25 Nov Doe Crag
16 Dec Gt. Gable (I)
(I) = Ladies Invitation Meet
Bill Hargreaves was appointed as ‘Climbing Leader’ on Club excursions. A Rope Fund was also started to enable the club to purchase ropes for general use by club members. A levy of 6d (2.5p) per person attending meets was made. By the end of the year the rope fund stood at 7/- (35p) but the committee made the decision not to buy ropes after all as they were difficult to maintain. The monies were, therefore put into the Club's General Fund.
Even in those halcyon days not all members were prompt in paying their fees and it was noted at the July Committee meeting that seven members were unpaid to the tune of £1-4s-0d (£1.20). Well, that situation has certainly not changed!
It was also agreed that travelling costs to Meets would be shared amongst those travelling as passengers with drivers exempt. However, two-seaters and motorcyclists were to make their own arrangements.
On the social side the first 'lecture with lantern slides held by the club was given by Dick Cook, a keen and talented amateur photographer and mountaineer.
In July Abb Sutcliffe was forced to resign the secretary/treasurership due to a job move taking him out of town. Josh Woods was asked to take the position which he held for the next three years.
The second AGM was held at the Labour Institute, Saul Street, Preston on 31st January 1935 with club membership having risen to 25 from 22 the previous year. The Minutes of the meeting stated that the average attendance at Meets was 15 - probably not too different from today and no mean feat when you think about the travelling situation then compared to now.
Comment was made by the Secretary that it was felt that
'the custom of bringing friends or family along to meets was, in some instances, taken advantage of as these persons were not actively pursuing membership. Members were warned to take the situation in hand!'
The Committee for 1935 confirmed Josh Woods as Secretary with Dick Cook joining as Committee member in his place. Mr F Thornton was appointed as Auditor. For reasons unstated at the time, Bill Hargeaves resigned his position- much to the regret of the club as he was clearly one of the leading lights. However, in conversations I had with Bill at his home in summer 1998 it transpires that he moved to London in 1936 where he joined the RAF. Bill did keep in touch with Harry Chapman but many years were to pass before he would return to his native county and the PMC.
The Balance Sheet for the year was presented showing a balance of £1-11s-Od (£1.55) - an increase on the previous year - despite a loss on the Coniston meet. These recurring losses were mainly due to the hire of coaches for meets and then not being supported by members!
At last the go-ahead was given to the Committee to get the Rule Book printed. And a rethink was had on the Rope Fund, which was resurrected with the 7/- already raised to be supplemented by a levy of 3d per person attending meets. The new Climbing Leader, Syd Mercer, was given responsibility for maintaining the ropes when purchased.
The Committee, in drawing up the Meets Programme for the year, looked at the possibility of weekend meets but felt that the 'difficulty in obtaining conveyances' meant that it was not feasible.
The 1935 card had several meets at Coniston, Langdale, Great Gable and a single foray to Laddow Rocks. Members gathered in Stankhouse Square, Preston for either 7.30 am or 8.00 am for travelling. Meets continued to be well attended and again averaging 15 with a turnout of 26 on the December meet. Part way through the year the club was approached by the Lancashire Climbing & Caving Club with a view to a joint meet on Laddow. However, PMC members were none too keen to climb on gritstone (modern members will have a sense of deja-vu!) and proposed the Lakes. The rebuff was obviously too much for the LCC and nothing further was heard of the proposal.
Amongst new members joining the club during the year were Alf Gregory, who went on to become well-known as a both mountain photographer and climber and was part of the climbing team in the Everest Reconnaissance Expedition in 1952, and the subsequent 1953 successful conquest of Everest by Sir Edmund Hillary. Another was Arthur Robinson, who would go on to be the Club Secretary for a lengthy spell. Ladies too were joining up - Miss Armfield and Miss Sluman being two of them. By the end of 1935 membership had risen steadily to 38 in total.
The members at the AGM were keen to have opportunities for further social meets so the Committee arranged a lecture in the February. Members were allowed to bring one friend with them and a charge of 6d (2.5p) would be levied to cover expenses. The reason for restricting attendance was '"to create a more intimate atmosphere than would have been possible had the lecture been open - and that the lecturer had given his services on the understanding that it should be a private lecture". (Perhaps he didn't want the taxman to know about it?) Two lectures took place with the one held in December given by a Mr J Burton and deemed a success with 43 members and friends attending - the subject of the lecture remains unknown to the author.
During the year investigations were held into the possibility of a 'club room' for the club during the winter months so that members could meet informally apart from official climbing meets. Negotiations took place with the Preston Cyclists' Club and agreement was reached whereby PMC could have use of the room, billiards table and other amenities for the fee of £1 per month. Members were asked to pay 6d per person for the use of the room.
In my conversations with Arthur Robinson and Bill Hargeaves I commented that the committee didn't really meet very much - perhaps twice a year. Both of them said the same thing to me - in those days it was all about just getting out and climbing and that the club was a suitable gathering for like-minded individuals. 'We were quite selfish really' said Arthur, "we just went out and climbed. We didn't put the effort into the club that goes in nowadays".
By October 1935 the Blackburn and some of the Preston cyclists were weakening and beginning to use the railway, particularly Preston to Carnforth and back, to relieve the long journey to the Lakes on climbing weekends. By the same token, Alf Gregory, Arnold England and other Blackpool lads were already the travelling the whole way by train regularly at this time.
An unnamed member of the time describes a typical meet’s activities as follows:
"Sunday October 6th was a lovely summer like day and climbing most of the time behind Syd Mercer we did D, Raven, down D, Falcon, down Blizzard, Jones’s and down Black Chimney. The D Buttress routes seemed tantalisingly short that day’. Three weeks later the same member describes the PMC being almost blown off Sharp Edge on Blencathra with even the ‘biggest chaps being whisked away into the stream’". I think perhaps life was simpler then. Although we now have ease of access to all corners of the country and the world at large it's so much more complex. Mass use of the outdoors has resulted in access problems, erosion and pollution problems, and carparking problems on a scale never envisaged in the 1930's. Nowadays it's becoming difficult to camp where/when you like; it's restricted, organised and expensive - but don't we like our luxuries of the campsite hot showers, loos, laundry etc!
The third AGM saw the creation of a new position on the Committee of Vice-President and Mr H Kirby was elected as the first one. Jack (John) Rainford joined the committee but otherwise it remained unchanged from the previous year. The Club had continued to make a small profit during the year with the balance in hand at £5-4s-10d (£5.24).
The Meets Programme was presented to the AGM with new horizons - an Easter meet in Wales. Otherwise the tried and tested Lakeland venues were kept fast.
The Club Rope fund finally paid off with the purchase of two 80 foot ropes for use on club meets. The 3d (1.5p) per person levy was to continue but was now aimed at a far more ambitious project - a Club Hut - which, in itself, would become a bit of a saga over the next 20 years or so!
The use of a 'Club Room' for social gathering had been formally sanctioned at the AGM, but by April the committee were advised that insufficient use was being made of it and it could not pay for itself despite the modest charge of 5/- (25p) per week. Apparently, Thursday evening was inconvenient for a number of members and a change of night was suggested. It is interesting to note that the clubroom was open to male members only! By September a loss of £1-16s-4d had been incurred with an average weekly attendance of only six members which meant that the rent could not be covered and it was decided to discontinue the club room for the coming winter. The lesson from the 'lack of interest from members' would be relearned in the not too distant future. Perhaps if the ladies had been able to attend things might have been improved! The social activities continued with a lecture by Abb Sutcliffe on 'Some Lakeland Clubs' and a Hot Pot Supper.
Josh Woods found a barn in Langdale Valley "ideally situated which would be suitable for use as a Club Hut". It was tenanted until that September, although members had the privilege of using it during the summer months. The current tenancy was held by a syndicate of 16 people many of whom it transpired were PMC members. One of them, Jack Rainford, had suggested that it would not be difficult for the club to take over the tenancy providing the syndicate members could have some use of it. The lady club members would, however, lose out yet again as "it was felt proper to restrict use to male members only as there was no separate accommodation". The Committee drew up a resolution which was unanimously passed: "That the Club do become tenants of the barn in Langdale valley near Ambleside owned by Mr J Birkett of great Langdale for a period of one year from 1st October 1936 at a rent not to exceed £4 with an option to renew such tenancy for a further period to be decided upon. That a charge of 6d per night be made to each member making use of the barn and that guests may be invited subject to there being accommodation. Such guests to make a similar payment of 6d per night." Jack Rainford was tasked with negotiating with Mr Birkett with a view to the matter being put to the next AGM.
This year also saw the first club badge which was designed by Jack Rainford and was in the form of a clinker (tricouni) nail with the wings flattened out and silver-plated with the letters PMC engraved in enamel with a pin on the back. The usual PMC prevarication prevailed when it came to the cost of producing the badge and it was not agreed until the Committee Meeting in May 1937 to go ahead and purchase 75 at a cost of 2/- (10p) each!
(It is interesting to note that many years later in the 1980s the question of a club badge was again raised. The existence of a previous badge at that time remained unknown and a new design produced by Pete Garratt. I was given one of the original badges by Arthur Robinson in exchange for one of the 'new' ones. So I will treasure it as it may be the only one still in existence.)
In the wider context of history, 1936 was the year in which the dawning of the awesome Hitler days were beginning to surface in the poular conscious. At the Berlin Olympic Games, Hitler showed off his array of Aryan athletes, his 'master race', to an unsuspecting world which in only three years time would be plunged into a second cataclysmic World War.
The fourth AGM on the 27th January 1937 was held at the Preston Cyclists Club and saw Josh Woods standing down and Arthur Robinson replacing him as Secretary/Treasurer an office which he would hold through the subsequent War years and beyond. Josh's efforts were given the club's thanks with a small gift.
Two Vice-Presidents were elected this year - H. Kirby and Abb Sutcliffe and a Dr Dias was invited to the Presidency, although, for reasons unknown, this never came to fruition. Dick Cook, Syd Mercer, T. Jackman and John F. Ashton were elected as committee members. Jack Rainford would be asked to take over the mantle of Climbing Leader but declined as he couldn't attend all meets. As a result Syd Mercer became Leader with Jack as his deputy.
The Club Hut was agreed by the AGM at a rent payable of £5 per year, with the Club Secretary as key-holder. Non-members staying at the Hut would be charged 1/- per night rather than 6d as originally planned. It would come as no surprise, one would imagine, that by May the Secretary was reporting to the Committee that the Hut was not receiving the support expected. Notwithstanding, it was agreed to carry on and review the matter later in the year. By that September the situation was no better with only 17s.Od having been taken in fees and at the November Committee Meeting the project was abandoned. (Ed- What price having such a facility in Langdale nowadays?)
It was agreed that the first ever Club Journal should be produced and Syd Mercer, Harry Bramley and Leo Conway were appointed as Editors chosen for their being ‘stout-hearted fellows with a broad-minded attitude on their subject’. The Journal gives an indication of the extent of the club’s activities at that time – the usual Lakes trips and further afield to Wales and Scotland and then to the Alps ‘Real mountains at last’ wrote A. Wood. Visits to Bavaria were made and PMC climbed many well-known peaks including the Matterhorn, Dent Blanche, and the Aiguilles Rouges.
The Editors included an amusing selection of testimonials to the PMC:
"PMC…how sickening’" - from the Pinnacle Club;
"What a horrible little badge they have" - Anon;
"Are you the Preston Clubs Guild?’" - Anon
"Those nasty Preston fellows…who throw stones" - Anon
"PMC? Oh yes, I’ve heard of them. I believe they are the roughest & toughest climbing club in England’" - Anon
Financially, the Club showed a healthy balance of £9-19s-7d (£9.96) and opened a bank account with Martin's Bank Ltd in the name of 'Preston Mountaineering Club' with the Secretary/Treasurer empowered to sign documents and cheques. And the Club Badge finally got the go-ahead for a production run of 75 at a cost of £7-11s-7d (£7.66). Twenty-six badges were sold immediately.
The first committee Meeting of 1937 was a rather controversial one. The Committee questioned the appointment of Abb Sutcliffe to the Vice-Presidency owing to the fact that he was seen a ‘professional’ guide and that "this might be detrimental to the well-being of the club". Quite why this might be the case is not explained further - one can only assume that the 'ethics' of the times caused the difficulty. The Committee decided to put the matter to Abb and some correspondence was exchanged over the next couple of months with the outcome that things were to be left as they were. Apparently no hard feelings were harboured as the Committee were to send a letter of condolence to Abb when he had an accident later that year.
The Meets card again held fast with the usual set of Lakes Meets at Coniston, Langdale and Seathwaite. And Members were active abroad. Arnold England and Alf Gregory climbed with guides in the Arolla as training for a later ascent of the Dent Blanche south ridge. The total cost of the trip came to £20 which included travel, hotel, huts, guides and a rescue party called on one of the training climbs!
The Club membership now stood at 51 and average attendance at club meets was 18.
The Presidency was left in abeyance this year and it was agreed to save it as a mark of special reward for 'especial services to the club'. Jack Higginson and Arthur Robinson continued and the Committee members were Harry Bramley, Syd Mercer, Dick Cook and Josh Woods. Subsequently, Dick Cook was elected to the Presidency and Jack Rainford to the Committee.
A further Journal was to be put together for 1938 with the same Editors as the previous year. However, unlike the previous year a loss would be incurred mainly due to the size and number of photographs it contained. To assist in making it viable it was decided that adverts would be considered. The Journal was an accomplished fact and a much improved Journal was produced by the same Editors.
The club's Alpine activity continued apace – with ascents of the Rimpfischorn, Durfarspitze and the Matterhorn. But near disaster struck on the Zinal Rothorn when Syd Mercer stood on a loose rock which "bowled into space with he a close second & head first". Syd luckily escaped with a bruised leg and went on to make the summit led by the well-known alpinist Albert Zucker and a young guide from the famous Lochmatter family. A trip to Ireland saw N.S. Cropper declare ‘rock climbing in Ireland is almost an unknown sport.’
A ‘Rolling Stone’ described the vagaries of married life for the climber: "Opportunities for mountaineering are reduced to a fine limit for some and one’s feeling…with envy and admiration towards carefree fellows who can respond, almost at will, to the call of the mountains".
Syd Mercer was once again appointed a Climbing Leader.
The 'spectre' of professionalism was raised again through the application for reinstatement of membership of C.K. Robson and his application was put on hold until questions about his status were answered. Eventually it was agreed pending payment of outstanding subscriptions.
This year was by all accounts a successful one on the climbing front. On the Continent, the Matterhorn, Monte Rosa, Breithorn, Wellenkuppe, Zinal Rothorn, Rimpfhorn, Riffelhorn had all been climbed guideless by Alf Gregory. Other club members - Arnold & Jessie England, Josh Wood, John Ashton, Arthur & Dot Robinson and Pip Dunderdale were based in Zermatt and had done extensive climbing in the region. Arnold England speaks of "unguided ascents of the Dom and Zinal Rothorn'"and "hair-raising moments on the Dom with snow ready to avalanche".
According to the 50th Anniversary Journa,l in an article by Arnold England "Alf Gregory was to begin a notable period (only broken by the 1939/45 War) of guideless climbs’". The ascent was made of the Dom under severe avalanche conditions in one of the worst seasons ever had in Zermatt.
On the home front the club visited the Scottish Highlands and Skye. Meets had been well-attended despite the numbers away during the summer months. The Meet Card included Yorkshire, Ennerdale and Wales as well as the usual meets in Langdale and Coniston.
The first journal had been successful and the 1938 Journal was well underway. There was no change to the Committee.
The Club gained its first Honorary Member in July. Harry Tunbridge offered his resignation due to financial difficulties (not connected with the Club) and it was felt that as a Founder Member appreciation of his services should be shown and thus he became the first Honorary Member.
All in all, worries were probably few and the outlook seemed to be grand. But all of that was to change with an alarming swiftness. Events in Europe would now to take control of everyone’s lives for an extended period of time. In September, at a Committee meeting at the New Victoria Cafe in Preston, the temporary disbandment of the club was discussed due to the onset of hostilities with Germany. However, they decided that the Club would carry on during the War, although the official Meets Programme would be abandoned. A circular was sent to all members to this effect together with a list of members' names and addresses was sent out so that they might get in touch should circumstances dictate. The matter of subscriptions was left in abeyance until the next Committee Meeting. Who could have foretold that the next Committee Meeting would not take place until January 1947?
Despite the start of the War, the 1940 AGM did take place, although the need for a quorum was waived. By now several club members were already serving with H.M. Forces and a "letter of fond wishes" was sent to those in the respective services. Although it seems a little incongruous given the events of the time, the Secretary reported a healthy bank balance of £17-12s-1d with a membership of 41. The Journal had made a small profit but was not well supported.
Two un-named members made a first ascent this year of the Dom Traverse and another PMC party in Germany found they had to leave hurriedly due to the impending war situation! At this stage there were no thoughts that the War would go on until 1945 and the meeting concluded by expressing the hope that the War might soon be over and that "we would once more look upon our position as one of the most active clubs in England".
The Langdale FRCC 1989 guidebook records four routes put up by member John Ashton and colleagues in this year:
Interlude J.Ashton, J.Diamond, J.Brady
Wall End J.Ashton, J.Diamond,J.Apted, I.Kellett
Paleface J.Ashton, J.Diamond,J.Apted, I.Kellett
Crow's Nest Direct S.Thompson, P.White, A.Mullan, V.Bolton, J.Ashton
The Dow, Duddon and Slate Guide shows Ashton, Diamond and Thompson putting up a route on B Buttress, Dow Crag – Hyacinth Route (HS)
The, now, classic Bilberry Buttress (VS) on Raven Crag, Langdale was also put up by Charles Rolland and Joe Renwick. Joe would later become a PMC member and play an active role within the PMC.
The records go blank at this stage as the world was plunged, yet again, into another catastrophic war that would go on for longer than could ever have been forseen and with outcomes which changed everyone’s lives. What would become of the members of the PMC? We would have to wait until 1947 to find out